Glossary - A

Access Control

Controlling who has access to a computer or online service and the information it stores.

Active Attack

Any attack that involves actions that are detectable as an attack by the target.

Antivirus Scanner

A software application which scans for malicious software and prevents malware from executing.


Something of value to a person, business or organization.

Attack Surface

The sum of the different points where an unauthorized user can try to enter data to or extract data from an environment.


The process to verify that someone is who they claim to be when they try to access a computer or online service.


The computing systems used to store and process information, the security controls used to protect it, and the communication channels used to access it must be functioning correctly at all times.


Knowledge and attitude members of an organization possess regarding the protection of the physical, and especially informational, assets of that organization.